Ecodevelopment 1993-2003

Unfortunately, much before we could finish directories for all the states, many of us got diverted to developing “ecodevelopment” plans for managing human nature interaction in and around PAs. This was not only an urgent need but, for the first time, we were going beyond just recording and evaluating the status of wildlife protected areas, and actually attempting to do something about protecting them better. Consequently, we only managed to complete the draft of one more directory, for Gujarat (1990), which was never finalised or published, and only a photocopy of a dot matrix computer printout survives.

The “ecodevelopment” approach was pioneered by the legendary wildlifer H.S. Panwar, when he was director of the Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh, in the 1970s. It involved PA management in a manner such that both the local wild life and local human populations benefitted, or at the very least, did not adversely affect each other while fulfilling their basic needs. This approach was increasingly being recognised as the optimal approach for resolving the conflicts that arose when local populations were prevented from using the resources of PAs, to fulfil their economic and natural-resource needs. Essentially, ecodevelopment involved investing in developing viable income and natural-resources alternatives for the local people so that they would be more able and willing to respect the restrictions that PAs imposed upon them.

The Government of India (GoI) decided, in 1993, to approach the World Bank, as a part of the Forest Research Education and Extension Project (FREEP), for financial support to initiate an ecodevelopment project in two PAs. Breaking from the tradition of the World Bank developing the project document through its own team, the GoI approached the IIPA team to develop the project documents for Great Himalayan National Park and the Kalakad Munduanthurai Tiger Reserve.

These were developed in 1993 and revised in 1995-96, and the original and revised project reports are included in this collection. In 1994, the IIPA team was again approached by GoI, this time to develop a much larger ecodevelopment project covering six protected areas, for funding by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The development of the project report was supported by the United Nations Development Programme.

Shekhar Singh
February 2021

Documents under Conservation of Wildlife – Ecodevelopment

1993 – Biodiversity Conservation Through Ecodevelpment – GHNP & KMTR

1994 – Biodiversity Conservation Through Ecodevelopment – An Indiacative Plan for Eight PAs

1995 – Human Nature Interaction In and Around National Parks and Sanctuaries

1995 – Integrated Conservation Development Projects for Biodiversity Conservation – The Asia Pacific Experience

1995 – Periyar Tiger Reserve – An Assessment

1995 – Sariska Tiger Reserve

1996 – Great Himalayan National Park

1996 – Rajaji National Park

1997 – Biodiversity Conservation Through Ecodevelopment – Planning & Implementation: Lessons from India

1998 – Ecodevelopment in India – Some Concepts and Issues

1999 – Ecodevelopment – Many Questions, Some Answers

2003 – Ecodevelopment in India

Conservation of Wildlife – Ecodevelopment :

Relevant Unpublished/Out-of-print Documents by Other Authors

2004 – Lessons Learned from Eco-Development Experiences in India

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