Unfortunately, much before we could finish directories for all the states, many of us got diverted to developing “ecodevelopment” plans for managing human nature interaction in and around PAs. This was not only an urgent need but, for the first time, we were going beyond just recording and evaluating the status of wildlife protected areas, and actually attempting to do something about protecting them better. Consequently, we only managed to complete the draft of one more directory, for Gujarat (1990), which was never finalised or published, and only a photocopy of a dot matrix computer printout survives.
The “ecodevelopment” approach was pioneered by the legendary wildlifer H.S. Panwar, when he was director of the Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh, in the 1970s. It involved PA management in a manner such that both the local wild life and local human populations benefitted, or at the very least, did not adversely affect each other while fulfilling their basic needs. This approach was increasingly being recognised as the optimal approach for resolving the conflicts that arose when local populations were prevented from using the resources of PAs, to fulfil their economic and natural-resource needs. Essentially, ecodevelopment involved investing in developing viable income and natural-resources alternatives for the local people so that they would be more able and willing to respect the restrictions that PAs imposed upon them.
The Government of India (GoI) decided, in 1993, to approach the World Bank, as a part of the Forest Research Education and Extension Project (FREEP), for financial support to initiate an ecodevelopment project in two PAs. Breaking from the tradition of the World Bank developing the project document through its own team, the GoI approached the IIPA team to develop the project documents for Great Himalayan National Park and the Kalakad Munduanthurai Tiger Reserve.
These were developed in 1993 and revised in 1995-96, and the original and revised project reports are included in this collection. In 1994, the IIPA team was again approached by GoI, this time to develop a much larger ecodevelopment project covering six protected areas, for funding by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The development of the project report was supported by the United Nations Development Programme.
1993 – Biodiversity Conservation Through Ecodevelpment – GHNP & KMTR
1994 – Biodiversity Conservation Through Ecodevelopment – An Indiacative Plan for Eight PAs
1995 – Human Nature Interaction In and Around National Parks and Sanctuaries
1995 – Integrated Conservation Development Projects for Biodiversity Conservation – The Asia Pacific Experience
1995 – Periyar Tiger Reserve – An Assessment
1995 – Sariska Tiger Reserve
1996 – Great Himalayan National Park
1996 – Rajaji National Park
1997 – Biodiversity Conservation Through Ecodevelopment – Planning & Implementation: Lessons from India
1998 – Ecodevelopment in India – Some Concepts and Issues
1999 – Ecodevelopment – Many Questions, Some Answers
2003 – Ecodevelopment in India
2004 – Lessons Learned from Eco-Development Experiences in India